The work of Franz Mesmer, amongst others, can be seen as both the last flourish of “occult” hypnosis and the first flourish of the “scientific” viewpoint.
Mesmer was the first to propose a rational basis for the effects of hypnosis.
He was also fond of dressing up in a cloak and playing ethereal music on the glass harmonica whilst this was happening.
The popular image of the hypnotist as a charismatic and mystical figure can be firmly dated to this time.
Leo is direct and generous with affections while Pisces lover is probably just as generous, but the style, however, is different.
Leo is personal, while Pisces’s loving nature is “universal” which makes the Leo feel insecure. When he is cheerfully given all the freedom he needs, he is always a faithful lover and a loyal husband.
Surgeons and physicians like John Elliotson and James Esdaille pioneered its use in the medical field, risking their reputation to do so, whilst researchers like James Braid began to peel away the obscuring layers of mesmerism, revealing the physical and biological truths at the heart of the phenomenon.
Thanks to their persistence and efforts, by the end of the century hypnosis was accepted as a valid clinical technique, studied and applied in the great universities and hospitals of the day.
The relationship of Leo and Pisces can be simultaneously fascinating and frustrating!
Secondly, hypnosis became a popular phenomenon, something that was increasingly available to the layman, outside of the laboratory or clinic.
At the same time, the style of hypnosis changed, from a direct instruction issued by an authoritarian figure (a legacy of the charismatic mesmerist) to a more indirect and permissive style of trance induction, based on subtly persuasive language patterns.
Recorded history is full of tantalising glimpses of rituals and practices that look very much like hypnosis from a modern perspective, from the “healing passes” of the Hindu Vedas to magical texts from ancient Egypt.
These practices tend to be for magical or religious purposes, such as divination or communicating with gods and spirits.
In the 21st century, there are still those who see hypnosis as some form of occult power.